Do we even need SSL?

“Do we even need SSL?” — In almost every project where hosting of some kind is involved this question comes up.

While SSL clearly can be improved it is the most easy way of secure transfer between web servers and web surfers.

In which cases is SSL expendable?

IMHO, encrypted data transfer via SSL is expendable when no private data or login credentials are being transmitted between the web server and you or visitors. That merely applies to static web sites only consisting of HTML, CSS, Javascript, images and nothing else.

In all other cases at least certain parts of a web site or web application should be transmitted via SSL only. The most common example is WordPress. Administrative access to WordPress should always be encrypted. There is a quite obvious reason: Imagine yourself in a Starbuck’s or any other place where you can freely access the Internet. You most probably are happy to have access — this is not the time to worry about other people eavesdropping on wifi connections.

The New York Post (via Bruce Schneier) has a nice blog post on this topic (the author meets a security consultant in Wi-Fi coffee shop for a live “hacking” demo):

He turned his laptop around to reveal all of this:

* Every copy of every e-mail message I sent *and* received.

* A list of the Web sites I visited.

* Even, incredibly, the graphics that had appeared on the Web sites I had visited.

None of this took any particular effort, hacker skill or fancy software. Anyone could do it. You could do it.

All Jon needed was a “packet sniffing” program; such software is free and widely available. (He used a Mac program called Eavesdrop.) It sniffs the airwaves and displays whatever data it finds being transmitted in the public hot spot.

I do not consider this even “hacking” as you only have to start a program that dumps wifi traffic. There are a bit more complicated ways that enable you to eavesdrop even on encrypted wifi traffic but that’s another story.

Security evangelist Bruce Schneier encrypts all of his web server’s transfer — so do I. A basic level of security can be obtained just by buying a SSL certificate and installing it/letting someone install it for you. Most web hosting services provide some way of protecting your web site traffic. If you only want to secure your administrative sections of your website and do not care for the extra bit of hassle that is involved with self-signed certificates you can get the security for free.

I do not say everyone should but you should at least let your web server encrypt sensitive data transfer such as administrative logins.

Randomly select a MySQL record

This is a reminder to myself as I have this problem every now and then. I thought I share this with you.

Ok the problem is to random(ish)ly select a record from a MySQL database in an efficient way without any scripting or programming. There are several more or less simple ways described everywhere on the web, one being


It does the job. Very slowly though, it can take MySQL several seconds or even minutes to complete the query. After fiddling around for some time, I came up with this:
set @randomId=FLOOR(RAND()*(SELECT MAX(pk_field) FROM table));
PREPARE randomStmt FROM “SELECT * FROM table WHERE pk_field > ? LIMIT 1”;
EXECUTE randomStmt USING @randomId
… where `pk_field` is a numeric primary key. Ok the query goes like this:

  1. Get the highest value for pk_field from table_name, multiply with a random number between 0…1, cut off decimals and store in variable randomId.
  2. Prepare a statement where we can insert randomId and retrieve the desired record with.
  3. Take the query, insert randomId and execute.

This runs very fast even with a large dataset. I hear your objections already… :)

“This is stupid. Why didn’t you use `COUNT(pk_field)` to find the end of the number range? Even then this approach would still be stupid BTW.” Because it is slow. I currently have a table with >1.8 million records and `COUNT(pk_field)` takes >1 seconds to complete. Not good. `MAX(pk_field)` is good enough in most cases. YMMV though.

“The query is not truly random and prefers records at the end of a large pk_field range gap!” True. That’s what I meant with “YMMV” :) My solution is not truly random and it is biased, especially when there are large gaps in `pk_field`. It works for me though and is random enough when there are no large pk_field gaps.

The keys to running a successful WordPress blog — technically speaking

Heise online reports WordPress is going to clean up the plugins dir because plugins “suck” and that — despite this fact — WordPress has become a constant in the web because large blogs such as Smashing Magazine are using it.

How do large WordPress blogs like Smashing Magazine accomplish this when plugins suck so much?

In the past years I have responsible for many WordPress installations, including Smashing Magazine‘s WordPress installations. I think I can tell you the keys that make a blog running WordPress successful or unsuccessful, technically speaking.

It’s the plugins:

  • How many of them are installed – the less the better!
  • Which ones are installed — always look how experienced the plugin’s developer is!
  • How they got chosen — make a security audit, either by yourself if you are competent, or hire someone how is!

In fact there are many, many WordPress plugins out there that have been developed by, let’s say, inexperienced developers. There are *tons* of security issues out there. The more plugins you install, the more security issues you install.

When I take over as a WordPress sysadmin, the first thing I do is throw out all unneeded plugins. Then I update the remaining ones. Then I try to further reduce the amount of plugins, either by implementing features myself or by replacing plugins with more capable/secure ones.

Here’s my last tip: If you cannot find a decent, capable, and secure WordPress plugin that suits your needs, hire a good developer with a security background to create it for you. Obviously you have to make sure not to hire one of the inexperienced developers. Please don’t go collecting plugins like “Oh I take this, and this one as well, this one sounds nice too” — this is not going to work in the long run. A successful WordPress blog is *always* run by competent admins and developers, not by “WordPress plugin collectors”.

Of course there are other factors as well, like always having the most recent versions of them installed, or to have interesting contents, but those are the keys IMHO.

Quick tip for Java/Netbeans users on Linux

If you are using Linux (Ubuntu and Debian in my case) and are being haunted by unresponsive, CPU and memory hogging Java applications you might find this piece of information useful:

  1. Check if you are using OpenJDK by issuing “java -version” in a terminal.
  2. If something with “OpenJDK” comes up, follow instructions (in german, but you get the point) on how to switch to the Java JDK from Oracle.

Netbeans now runs like a breeze now. Enjoy :)

Setting fake user agent in Polipo

I use Polipo as a caching web proxy for my VPN and for some simple anonymizing. It’s a great software.

One thing bugs me though: when censoring User-Agent, as intended, it does not send a User-Agent header. But: Sometimes poorly written web scripts break on a missing user agent string or web scripts take a missing user agent string as an indicator for a bot and block the request (Wikipedia does that for example).

I have created a tiny patch that sets “User-Agent: empty” header when censoring “User-Agent” so that web scripts do not break or block the request. There are only four new lines and you can set the fake user agent string in config.h:

diff -cB ./polipo/config.h ./polipo_custom/config.h
*** ./polipo/config.h 2011-07-17 12:48:42.000000000 +0200
— ./polipo_custom/config.h 2011-07-17 13:22:06.000000000 +0200
*** 35,40 ****
— 35,41 —-
#define CONFIG_INT_LIST 12
+ #define USER_AGENT_STRING “empty”

typedef struct _ConfigVariable {
AtomPtr name;
diff -cB ./polipo/server.c ./polipo_custom/server.c
*** ./polipo/server.c 2011-07-17 12:48:42.000000000 +0200
— ./polipo_custom/server.c 2011-07-17 13:25:28.000000000 +0200
*** 1678,1683 ****
— 1678,1686 —-
goto fail;

if(request->request && request->request->headers) {
+ if(strstr(request->request->headers->string, “User-Agent:”) == NULL) {
+ n = snnprintf(connection->reqbuf, n, bufsize, “\r\nUser-Agent: %s”, USER_AGENT_STRING);
+ }
n = snnprint_n(connection->reqbuf, n, bufsize,

You can check your user agent string with

There is no PayPal for me

Every now and then colleagues or customers ask me whether I can do PayPal transactions with them.

Unfortunately, I can not. Let me explain:

Until some 7-8 years ago I had been a happy PayPal customer with a positive balance of x.y EUR. Then, from PayPal’s point of view, I made a “suspicious” transaction of exactly x.y EUR.

For PayPal, this was an attempt of fraud. I cannot remember who PayPal thought was the victim in this case but it does not matter either.

PayPal froze my account and demanded some proof or acknowledgement that the transaction was no fraud. They suggested sending them a utility invoice that should prove that I am real. Unless you do not know, in Germany it is absolutely uncommon that a company asks for a copy of a utility invoice. Maybe in some other less developed country this is considered appropriate, but I do not. This is odd and strange and none of their business.

I saw no need to prove my innocence, because… you certainly remember: In a constitutional state you are innocent until proven guilty.

My account remained frozen for three years until PayPal started inviting me back to use their services again.

Thanks, but no thanks.

Most companies pay good money for customer leads but this company seems to have a Customer Repellent Department.

So, there is a good reason for my PayPal abstinence. I hope you understand I can not risk my balance being frozen by a rampant company.